The International Society for Vaccines is an organization that engages, supports, and sustains the professional goals of a diverse membership in all areas relevant to vaccines - 2018 ISV Annual Congress

Paper of the Month Dec 2016

In vivo protection against ZIKV infection and pathogenesis through passive antibody transfer and active immunisation with a prMEnv DNA vaccine

Npj Vaccines (2016) 1, 16021; doi:10.1038/npjvaccines.2016.21; published online 10 November 2016

Authors

Karuppiah Muthumani Bryan D Griffin2, Sangya Agarwal, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Emma L Reuschel, Hyeree Choi, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Elizabeth K Duperret, Amelia Anne Keaton, Christopher Chung, Yinho K Kim, Stephanie A Booth, Trina Racine, Jian Yan4, Matthew P Morrow, Jingjing Jiang, Brian Lee, Stephanie Ramos, Kate E Broderick, Charles C Reed, Amir S Khan, Laurent Humeau, Kenneth E Ugen, Young K Park, Joel N Maslow, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger and David B Weiner

Abstract

Significant concerns have been raised owing to the rapid global spread of infection and disease caused by the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV). Recent studies suggest that ZIKV can also be transmitted sexually, further increasing the exposure risk for this virus. Associated with this spread is a dramatic increase in cases of microcephaly and additional congenital abnormalities in infants of ZIKV-infected mothers, as well as a rise in the occurrence of Guillain Barre’ syndrome in infected adults. Importantly, there are no licensed therapies or vaccines against ZIKV infection. In this study, we generate and evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a novel, synthetic, DNA vaccine targeting the pre-membrane+envelope proteins (prME) of ZIKV. Following initial in vitro development and evaluation studies of the plasmid construct, mice and non-human primates were immunised with this prME DNA-based immunogen through electroporation-mediated enhanced DNA delivery. Vaccinated animals were found to generate antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity and neutralisation activity. In mice lacking receptors for interferon (IFN)-α/β (designated IFNAR− / −) immunisation with this DNA vaccine induced, following in vivo viral challenge, 100% protection against infection-associated weight loss or death in addition to preventing viral pathology in brain tissue. In addition, passive transfer of non-human primate anti-ZIKV immune serum protected IFNAR− / − mice against subsequent viral challenge. This study in NHP and in a pathogenic mouse model supports the importance of immune responses targeting prME in ZIKV infection and suggests that additional research on this vaccine approach may have relevance for ZIKV control and disease prevention in humans.

Paper of the Month Feb 2016

A Recombinant G Protein Plus Cyclosporine A-Based Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Elicits Humoral and Regulatory T Cell Responses against Infection without Vaccine-Enhanced Disease.

J Immunol. 2016 Feb 15;196(4):1721-31. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1502103. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Authors

Li C, Zhou X, Zhong Y, Li C, Dong A, He Z, Zhang S, Wang B.

Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and older people. Vaccination with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV) and subsequent RSV infection has led to mild to severe pneumonia with two deaths among vaccinees. The vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) was recently demonstrated to be due to an elevated level of Th2 cell responses following loss of regulatory T (Treg) cells from the lungs. To induce high levels of neutralizing Abs and minimize pathogenic T cell responses, we developed a novel strategy of immunizing animals with a recombinant RSV G protein together with cyclosporine A. This novel vaccine induced not only a higher level of neutralizing Abs against RSV infection, but, most importantly, also significantly higher levels of Treg cells that suppressed VED in the lung after RSV infection. The induced responses provided protection against RSV challenge with no sign of pneumonia or bronchitis. Treg cell production of IL-10 was one of the key factors to suppress VED. These finding indicate that G protein plus cyclosporine A could be a promising vaccine against RSV infection in children and older people.

Paper of the Month Jan 2016

Antibody Levels and Protection After Hepatitis B Vaccine: Results of a 30-Year Follow-up Study and Response to a Booster Dose.

J Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 21. pii: jiv748. [Epub ahead of print]

Authors

Bruce MG et al Arctic Investigations program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center from Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Background

The duration of protection in children and adults resulting from hepatitis B vaccination is unknown. In 1981, we immunized a cohort of 1578 Alaska native adults and children from 15 Alaska communities aged >= 6 months using 3 does of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine.